Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that usually focuses on a “combination of lowlife and high-tech” with advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, alternating with a degree of collapse or radical change in the social order .
Much cyberpunk is rooted in the New Wave science fiction movement of the sixties and seventies, when writers such as Philip K. Dick, Roger Zelazny, JG Ballard, Philip José Farmer and Harlan Ellison investigated the impact of drug culture, technology and the sexual revolution. the utopian tendencies of previous science fiction are avoided. William Gibson’s influential debut novel, Neuromancer, released in 1984, would help solidify cyberpunk as a genre and gain influence from punk subculture and early hacker culture. Other influential cyber punk authors were Bruce Sterling and Rudy Rucker.
Early films in the genre include the 1982 film Blade Runner by Ridley Scott, one of the works by Philip K. Dick that have been filmed. The films Johnny Mnemonic and New Rose Hotel, both based on short stories by William Gibson, were flopped commercially and critically. More recent additions to this genre of filmmaking are the 2017 release of Blade Runner 2049, the sequel to the original film from 1982 and the Netflix TV series Altered Carbon from 2018.